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Official Paper 26: Held on 3rd Dec 2019 Shift 1

Option 4 : Universal Affirmative

Official Paper 1: Held on 24 Sep 2020 Shift 1

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In logic, the **categorical proposition** asserts or denies that all or some of the members of one category are included in another. A proposition is assumed to be true and from which a conclusion can be drawn. The proposition consists of the following four parts :

**Quantifier**: All, no, and some. They specify a quantity. ‘All’ and ‘no’ are universal quantifiers and ‘some’ is a particular quantifier.**Subject (S)**: About which something is being said.**Predicate (P)**: Something that affirms or denies the subject.**Copula**: Relation between subject and predicate.- Quantifier + Subject + Copula + Predicate

**Quality**: Categorical propositions can have one of the two qualities—affirmative or negative.

**CLASSIFICATION**: Propositions are basically of two types, namely universal and particular. Both of them can further be divided into two parts.

Type |
Form |
Distribution |
Example |

1) Universal Affirmative (A): Denotes inclusion |
All S is P | Subject only. A predicate is not interchangeable with the subject. | All tigers are animals. |

2) Universal Negative (E): Denotes exclusion |
No S is P | Both subject and predicate. An entire class of predicate terms is denied to the entire class of the subject term. | No fish are birds. |

3) Particular Affirmative (I): Denotes partial inclusion |
Some S is P | Neither the subject nor the predicate. | Some men are foolish. |

4) Particular Negative (O): Denotes partial exclusion |
Some S is not P | Only of the predicate. | Some birds are not carnivores. |

**Hence,** "All tigers are animals", is an example of Universal Affirmative.